Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin is Berlin's oldest university, founded in 1810 by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt, whose university model has strongly influenced other European and Western universities. From 1828 it was known as the Frederick William University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität), later also as the Universität unter den Linden. In 1949, it changed its name to Humboldt-Universität in honour of its founder.
University of Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne is one of the 13 universities in Paris. It incorporates forty thousand students in 14 teaching and research departments (Unités de Formation et de Recherche) and 5 Institutes, which offer top-level degree courses in law, political science, economics, management and the humanities.
Paris I is at the centre of a rich network of international relations stretching across the five continents and continues to play a major role in the training of researchers, academics, judges, lawyers, managers and French civil servants.
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn was founded in 1818 by Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm III, although it was preceded by an Academy established in 1777. It is a public research university and is nowadays one of the largest universities in Germany. The University of Bonn offers a large number of undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects. Its library holds more than two million volumes. The University of Bonn has more than 500 professors and 27,000 students. Among its notable alumni and faculty are six Nobel Laureates, one Fields Medalists, Pope Benedict XVI, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche and Joseph Schumpeter.